History of the icon Virgin of Guadalupe
The story of the miraculous Holy face began in the distant year of 1531. So, the ninth of December 1531 at Tepejjak Hill, near Mexico City, the Virgin Mary manifested herself to a seventeen years old Indian Juan Diego Kuauhtlatoatcin. That day, Juan Diego was walking to morning mass at Tlatelolco, which has been held on Mount Tepejjak, and saw a beautiful woman. She presented the boy as the mother of God from Guadeloupe. According to the Legend the Virgin Mary manifested herself to Juan Diego four times, from 9th to 12th of December.
She asked to the boy with the request to build a church on the hill. Here Juan and his brothers would be able to feel all of her compassion to them. And everyone who will also ask for help to her will be able to get it on this place. Juan Diego went to the Bishop Juan de Sumarrage. He reported to him the words of the Virgin Mary. The Bishop listened to Indian, but didn’t believe in his words. He asked that the Virgin Mary confirmed what he said by any sign. Then Juan Diego went to the Hill Tepejjak. Juan reported her Bishop’s words Virgin Mary. After that she agreed to give the sign and told the boy to come the next day at that place.
The next day Juan came and saw that on a barren rock bloomed lush shrub roses, and near it the Virgin Mary was. This was her sign. The Virgin told Juan that he took the roses, wrapped them in his raincoat and brought to the Bishop. Juan Diego went to the Bishop and his counselors and did that. Everyone fell on their knees: the face of the Blessed Virgin was incredibly impressed on his raincoat. So on a Temple hill was built a church in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Thousands and then millions of pilgrims from different parts of America visited this place, as the fame of the miraculous image of the Virgin Mary came out far beyond Mexico. Nowadays it supposed to be the patroness of the Americas, both north and South. Each year around 14 million people come Mexico City to visit the Basilica. Many people overcome the stone road to the Church on their knees and pray of everyone’s miracle. And these miracles became true.
In the cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe, many anthropologists have found traces of ancient Indian traditions with roots in the depths of centuries. There is a legend according to which, before the Europeans came to these lands, on the Tepejjak Hill the sanctuary of the goddess the Aztecs named Tonacin was situated. Spanish chroniclers wrote that in that the Catholic Church Indians for some time continued to pray to that deity. About ancient customs also reminds the ritual. On the holly eve from the candles in basilica lit the fire that then spread throughout the country. In Aztec times there was also a ritual of the “new fire”. After the end of the calendar cycle of modern Mexico “newborn flame” carried throughout the Empire by the couriers.
Scientific interest in the miraculous image of the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared in the 18th century, but systematic research began only in 1948. From that time the image of Virgin Mary were treated with many test using modern technologies. In 1976, two Mexican scientists-Roberto Palacios and Ernesto Paljaresom made conclusion. According to it the image of the Virgin Mary made of cactus fiber ajjate. It is very interesting that this material can hold only for two-three decades. And we cannot explain the fact how the image of Virgin Mary is held for 480 years.
During the first two centuries the miraculous image was held in smoke of big hanging lamp soot of hundreds of candles without protective coatings. He was treated with natural atmospheric processes.
If this icon was made by hands of human, it would be wintry. However, neither the time nor the influence of various external factors on the image of the Virgin Mary of Guadalupe left the slightest trace. And this is really unbelievable.
In 1977, the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe was investigated by German and American scientists. Among them was the Nobel Laureate in chemistry Richard Kuhn. The investigation has shown that this image was not created by human. There were no traces of preliminary outline markup language, primer or brush marks on canvas. Moreover, scientists have not been able to establish a method of creating this miraculous image.
Every shade of the image of the Virgin Mary of Guadalupe is a chemical compound whose molecule is connected directly with the fabric .Where those molecules are absent there is no color, and thus the image itself.
In 1979 professors from the University of Florida-Philip Callahan and Jody b. Smith began to study the image. They studied the image of the Virgin in infrared light. Callahan and Smith found that during observation image from different angles, it changes colors. This phenomenon is called “prismatic colors”.
Bright eyes of the Virgin of Guadalupe
Eyes of the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe are look like the eyes of an alive person. Moreover, in the eyes of the Virgin scientists discovered the phenomenon of reflection. For example, retina reacts to light , it also widens and narrows, as the retina of a living person.
In 1929 the photographer Alfonso Marche made another invention. In the right eye of the Virgin Mary, he saw an image of a bearded man. Twenty years later, this fact was confirmed by a researcher called Jose Carlos Salinas Chavez.
A scientist from Peru-José Aste Tonsmann made a researching of Mexican image for the last twenty years. He has recognized the second image, it was Indian Juan Diego Kuauhtlatoatcin. The image of the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared to him. The researcher examined the image of an old man in the apple of its eye. It was Bishop Juan de Zumarraga.
Peruvian scientist was struck by further invention. Jose Aste Tonsmann also saw the figure of a black woman in the apple of eye of the image. The discovery stunned scientist, as in 1531 in Mexico might not be afro American. Historians have helped the researcher to expose this puzzle.
In the center of the apple of eye Peruvian scientist also saw a group of smaller shapes. Mother kept the youngest child on her shoulders. In this family Jose Aste Tonsmann saw a sign which, in his opinion, the Virgin Mary addressed to people living in the current era.
These microscopic images were hidden from people for over five centuries. Only modern technology was able to recognize them. It can only talk about that the message of the Virgin of Guadalupe waited for its time. What she wanted to say with this message? Peruvian investigator concluded that the image of the Indian family is a reminder for modern inhabitants of the planet how important is family for life. This message is especially urgent now.
NASA Research Virgin of Guadalupe
Not so long ago, NASA began a study of the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe. The canvas, which shows the image of the Virgin, has a normal temperature of a living human body, namely thirty six and six degrees Celsius. The image has a pulse. Also on the image were spotted some “weirdness.” For example, at the image of the Virgin Mary’s hands somehow have different shades, one is lighter than the other. Scientists suggest that this is not a simple distinction; this is most likely a sign of unity between the different human races. On the neck of the Virgin Mary there is a depicted cross. Researchers perceive this cross as a symbol of Christianity enculturation of the community of the Aztecs.
Day of the Virgin of Guadalupe
12th December in Mexico the Day of the Virgin of Guadalupe is celebrated. In 1859, it became a national holiday. For Mexicans, this day is the most important religious holiday. Millions of people from all over the world pilgrimage to the Basilica of the Virgin of Guadalupe. The 12th of December 2011 onwards to the Basilica came about five million pilgrims, they brought a wooden, ceramic figurines and images of the icon of the Virgin Mary. Many pilgrims traveled all the way to the image by bikes, and some even on foot.